The method of our time is to use not one but multiple exploration models.

Marshall McLuhan





Circulatory CNP rescues Craniofacial Hypoplasia in Achondroplasia (Yamanaka S et al, 2017)(pdf)

Mammalian skeletons are formed through intramembranous or endochondral ossification. Most of the skeletons form by endochondral ossification through a process involving a cartilage intermediate. A small number of skeletal elements are formed by intramembranous ossification, in which bones form directly from condensations of mesenchymal cells without a cartilage intermediate (de Crombrugghe et al. 2001). The craniofacial skeleton contains bones that develop through both
processes. Bones in the face and cranial vault develop through intramembranous ossification, whereas the skull base and nasal septum are formed through endochondral ossification

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